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Rangitaiki River Rangitaiki River


Wetlands are the natural boundary between land and water and are important ecosystems in the Bay of Plenty. They are permanently or intermittently wet areas, shallow water and land water margins that support plants and animals adapted to wet conditions.

Wetlands are often located in the margins of lakes and rivers, but also occur on flats, slopes and basins, and on the margins of estuaries where they are often influenced by the tides. They may also be known as a bog, fen, swamp or marsh, indicating the different wetland types. 

No two wetlands are exactly alike. Wetlands vary widely because of regional and local differences in:

  • Soils
  • Topography
  • Climate
  • Hydrology
  • Water chemistry
  • Vegetation
  • Other factors including human disturbance.

Wetlands may also change over time as environmental conditions alter.


Wetlands are very sensitive to changes in climate, water availability, disturbance and land use and they are extremely vulnerable to the effects of human activity.

Approximately 90 percent of New Zealand's and the Bay of Plenty's freshwater wetlands have been lost in the last 150 years. Most of these wetlands were in areas very desirable for the development of farmland. Draining, burning and clearing of vegetation for farmland, together with the reclamation of wetlands for urban and industrial uses, have been the principal agents of wetland destruction.

  • Inappropriate land use management and development.
  • Drainage and/or infilling associated with the pressure to develop economically productive land.
  • Grazing, pugging and wallowing by stock.
  • Built structures.
  • Lack of ongoing maintenance.
  • Pest animals and plants. Invasive weeds, such as parrot feather, are evident in some of the wetlands in the Bay of Plenty.
  • Burning of vegetation.
  • Discharges of contaminants, including diffuse discharges of nutrients and sediment from land use activities.

  • Fence off any wetlands on your property and encourage others to do the same.
  • Avoid creating drainage ditches near wetlands.
  • Get involved with your local care group.
  • Legally protect your wetland, e.g. Queen Elizabeth II National Trust Covenant.
  • Actively manage and restore your wetland by controlling pest plants and animals.

Our Land Management Officers work directly with landowners and the community to actively manage wetlands. They can provide advice on:

  • Environmental Enhancement Fund project funding.
  • Resource consent requirements.
  • Environmental Programme Agreement funding to help protect, maintain or enhance wetlands on private land.
  • Wetland creation, enhancement, restoration or protection, especially regarding wetland design, planting advice, maintenance, fencing, long-term management and possible funding assistance
  • Legal protection options, such as QEII National Trust Covenants.
  • Liaison with existing wetland care groups.

The Bay of Plenty Wetland Restoration Guide was prepared by the Bay of Plenty Wetlands Forum (comprising the Department of Conservation, Bay of Plenty Regional Council and Fish & Game New Zealand).