|Botanical Name||Chrysanthemoides monilifera|
IdentificationAlso known as salt bush. Bushy, much-branched shrub or small tree, up to 2-(3) m tall with yellow daisy-like flowers. Can be distinguished from all other Asteraceae in the wild in NZ by the drupe (stone fruit), with thin fleshy covering over very hard stone. Flowers Sep-Feb.
HabitatsMainly coastal areas, coastal cliffs, inshore islands and dry shrublands, shrubland margins, consolidated sand dunes, gumlands, roadsides, quarries, wastelands, exotic plantations, threat to offshore islands. Dry soils, well drained, tolerant of very poor soils and sand. Common.
Impact to Biota and EcosystemsHardy, persistent shrub which in low coastal vegetation could become a dominant cover. Potential to infest offshore islands. Could displace some shrub species and compete with seedlings of larger trees e.g. pohutukawa. Creates heavy shade in environments where high light levels occur normally. Some species of coastal shrublands and open pohutukawa forests will be heavily impacted.
Dispersal Routes, Vectors, Infestation SourcesDispersed primarily along coastlines and roadsides by soil disturbance. Seeds have hard protective cover (bone-seed). Suspected seed bank viability extensive. Fruit eaten by possums.
Hand pull all but the largest plants. Reasonably tolerant to physical damage; fire assists germination.
Compost or mulch plants without seeds. Deeply bury all plant material containing seeds.
Can be sprayed with most brushweed herbicides.
|Recommended Approach||Hand pull smaller plants. Stump treat larger plants if required. Follow-up for seedlings will be required.|
This plant is prohibited from propagation, sale and distribution Within New Zealand!
For further information please refer to Bay of Plenty Regional Council's Fact Sheet on Boneseed.